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In the Name of Good . . .

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In 1932, the United States Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute, began a study to record the natural history of syphilis. It was originally called the “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male” (now referred to as the “USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee”). The study initially involved 600 Black men – 399 with syphilis, 201 who did not have the disease. Participants’ informed consent was not collected.

Researchers told the men they were being treated for “bad blood,” a local term used to describe several ailments, including syphilis, anemia, and fatigue. By 1943, penicillin was the treatment of choice for syphilis and becoming widely available, but the participants in the study were not offered treatment. In 1972, an Associated Press story about the study was published. As a result, the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs appointed an Ad Hoc Advisory Panel to review the study.

The advisory panel concluded that the study was “ethically unjustified”; that is, the “results [were] disproportionately meager compared with known risks to human subjects involved.” In October 1972, the panel advised stopping the study. A month later, the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs announced the end of the study. In March 1973, the panel also advised the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) (now known as the Department of Health and Human Services) to instruct the United States Public Health Service to provide all necessary medical care for the survivors of the study.

The Tuskegee Health Benefit Program (THBP) was established to provide these services. In 1975, participants’ wives, widows and children were added to the program. In 1995, the program was expanded to include health, as well as medical, benefits. The last study participant died in January 2004. The last widow receiving The Tuskegee Health Benefit Program benefits died in January 2009. Participants’ children continue to receive medical and health benefits. Later in 1973, a class-action lawsuit was filed on behalf of the study participants and their families, resulting in a $10 million, out-of-court settlement in 1974. [1] The Tuskegee education center tells us...

...the study took place in Macon County, Alabama, the county seat of Tuskegee referred to as the "Black Belt" because of its rich soil and vast number of black sharecroppers who were the economic backbone of the region. The research itself took place on the campus of Tuskegee Institute.

The intent of the study was to record the natural history of syphilis in Blacks. The study was called the "Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male." When the study was initiated, there were no proven treatments for the disease. A total of 600 men were enrolled in the study. Of this group 399, who had syphilis were a part of the experimental group and 201 were control subjects. Most of the men were poor and illiterate sharecroppers from the county. The men were offered what most Negroes could only dream of in terms of medical care and survivors' insurance.

They were enticed and enrolled in the study with incentives including: medical exams, rides to and from the clinics, meals on examination days, free treatment for minor ailments and guarantees that provisions would be made after their deaths in terms of burial stipends paid to their survivors. There were no proven treatments for syphilis when the study began. When penicillin became the standard treatment for the disease in 1947 the medicine was withheld as a part of the treatment for both the experimental group and control group.

On July 25, 1972 Jean Heller of the Associated Press broke the story that appeared simultaneously both in New York and Washington, that there had been a 40-year nontherapeutic experiment called "a study" on the effects of untreated syphilis on Black men in the rural south. That was back in the day when the press was still honest. Between the start of the study in 1932 and 1947, the date when penicillin was determined as a cure for the disease, dozens of men had died and their wives, children and untold number of others had been infected. This set into motion international public outcry and a series of actions initiated by U.S. federal agencies.

The Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs appointed an Ad Hoc Advisory Panel, comprised of nine members from the fields of health administration, medicine, law, religion, education, etc. to review the study. While the panel concluded that the men participated in the study freely, agreeing to the examinations and treatments, there was evidence that scientific research protocol routinely applied to human subjects was either ignored or deeply flawed to ensure the safety and well-being of the men involved.

These scientists were as wicked then as they are today. Specifically, the men were never told about or offered the research procedure called informed consent. Researchers had not informed the men of the actual name of the study, i.e., "Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male," its purpose, and potential consequences of the treatment or non-treatment that they would receive during the study. The men never knew of the debilitating and life-threatening consequences of the treatments they were to receive, the impact on their wives, girlfriends, and children they may have conceived once involved in the research.

The panel also concluded that there were no choices given to the participants to quit the study when penicillin became available as a treatment and cure for syphilis. This experiment seems eerily familiar with the live exercise experiment we are seeing today in real-time. Where is the Ad Hoc Advisory Panel today? Reviewing the results of the research, the panel concluded that the study was "ethically unjustified." Yet, they are conducting a deadly ethically unjustified study on all peoples this very day world-wide. The panel articulated all of the above findings in October of 1972 and then one month later the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs officially declared the end of the Tuskegee Study.

Class-Action Suit, In the summer of 1973, Attorney Fred Gray filed a class-action suit on behalf of the men in the study, their wives, children and families. It ended a settlement giving more than $9 million to the study participants. In the beginning of the 20th Century, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) was entrusted with the responsibility to monitor, identify trends in the health of the citizenry, and develop interventions to treat disease, ailments and negative trends adversely impacting the health and wellness of Americans.

It was organized into sections and divisions including one devoted to venereal diseases. All sections of the Public Health Service conducted scientific research involving human beings. The research standards were for their times adequate, by comparison to today's standards dramatically different and influenced by the professional and personal biases of the people leading the U.S.

Public Health Service. Scientists believed that few people outside of the scientific community could comprehend the complexities of research from the nature of the scientific experiments to the consent involved in becoming a research subject. These sentiments were particularly true about the poor and uneducated Black community. The U.S. Public Health Service began working with Tuskegee Institute all the way back to 1932 to study hundreds of black men with syphilis from Macon County, Alabama.

As part of the class-action suit settlement, the U.S. government promised to provide a range of free services to the survivors of the study, their wives, widows, and children. All living participants became immediately entitled to free medical and burial services. These services were provided by the Tuskegee Health Benefit Program, which was and continues to be administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention. In February of 1994 at the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library in Charlottesville, VA, a symposium was held entitled "Doing Bad in the Name of Good:

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Its Legacy." Resulting from this gathering was the creation of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee which met for the first time in January 18th & 19th of 1996. The committee had two goals; (1) to persuade President Clinton to apologize on behalf of the government for the atrocities of the study and (2) to develop a strategy to address the damages of the study to the psyche of African-Americans and others about the ethical behavior of government-led research; rebuilding the reputation of Tuskegee through public education about the study, developing a clearinghouse on the ethics of scientific research and scholarship and assembling training programs for health care providers.

After intensive discussions, the Committee's final report in May of 1996 urged President Clinton to apologize for the emotional, medical, research and psychological damage of the study. On May 16th at a White House ceremony attended by the men, members of the Legacy Committee and others representing the medical and research communities, the apology was delivered to the surviving participants of the study and families of the deceased. [2]

To really understand the heinous nature of the Tuskegee Experiment requires some societal context, a lot of history, and a realization of just how many times government agencies were given a chance to stop this human experimentation but didn’t.

This article from McGill Office for Science and Society tells that in 1865, the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution formally ended the enslavement of black Americans. But by the early 20th century, the cultural and medical landscape of the U.S. was still built upon and inundated with racist concepts. Social Darwinism was rising, predicated on the survival of the fittest, and “scientific racism” (a pseudoscientific practice of using science to reinforce racial biases) was common.

Rather than simply observing and documenting the natural progression of syphilis in the community as had been planned, the researchers intervened: first by telling the participants that they were being treated (a lie), and then again by preventing their participants from seeking treatment that could save their lives. The Henderson Act was passed in 1943, requiring tests and treatments for venereal diseases to be publicly funded, and by 1947, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis, prompting the U.S. Public Health Service to open several Rapid Treatment Centers specifically to treat syphilis with penicillin.

All the while they were actively preventing 399 men from receiving the same treatments. In 1947 the Nuremberg code was written, and in 1964 the World Health Organization published their Declaration of Helsinki. Both aimed to protect humans from experimentation, but despite this, the Centers for Disease Control (which had taken over from the U.S. Public Health Service in controlling the study) actively decided to continue the study as late as 1969.

It wasn’t until a whistleblower, Peter Buxtun, leaked information about the study to the New York Times and the paper published it on the front page on November 16th, 1972, that the Tuskegee study finally ended. By this time only 74 of the test subjects were still alive. 128 patients had died of syphilis or its complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children had acquired congenital syphilis. [3] Oh, there is more to this story. UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-KANSAS CITY Research Services writes that... the late 1950s, thalidomide was approved as a sedative in Europe; it was not approved in the United States by the FDA. The drug was prescribed to control sleep and nausea throughout pregnancy, but it was soon found that taking this drug during pregnancy caused severe deformities in the fetus.

Many patients did not know they were taking a drug that was not approved for use by the FDA, nor did they give informed consent. Some 12,000 babies were born with severe deformities due to thalidomide. In 1964, the World Medical Association established recommendations guiding medical doctors in biomedical research involving human subjects. The Declaration governs international research ethics and defines rules for "research combined with clinical care" and "non-therapeutic research."

The Declaration of Helsinki was revised in 1975, 1983, 1989 and 1996 and is the basis for Good Clinical Practices used today. Issues addressed in the Declaration of Helsinki include: Research with humans should be based on the results from laboratory and animal experimentation. Research protocols should be reviewed by an independent committee prior to initiation. Informed consent from research participants is necessary.

Research should be conducted by medically/scientifically qualified individuals. Risks should not exceed benefits. Due to the publicity from the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, the National Research Act of 1974 was passed. The National Research Act created the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which was charged to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and to develop guidelines which should be followed to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles.

The Commission drafted the Belmont Report, a foundational document in for the ethics of human subject's research in the United States. Nazi atrocities in World War II drew attention to the lack of international standards on research with human subjects and led to the formulation of the Nuremberg Code. The thalidomide disaster led to the adoption of the "Kefauver Amendments" to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, requiring drug manufacturers to prove to the FDA the effectiveness of their products before marketing them.

The Declaration of Helsinki is the basis for Good Clinical Practices used today. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study is probably the worst case of unethical human subject's research in the history of the United States. The National Research Act codified the requirement that human subjects in research must be protected and set the stage for the issuance of the Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established three basic ethical principles – respect for persons, beneficence and justice – which are the cornerstone for regulations involving human subjects.

Carrying out its charge, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research prepared the Belmont Report in 1979. The Belmont Report attempts to summarize the basic ethical principles identified by the Commission in the course of its deliberations. The Report is a statement of basic ethical principles and guidelines that should assist in resolving the ethical problems that surround the conduct of research with human subjects. These basic ethical principles and their corresponding applications are: Principle:

Respect for Persons: Individuals should be treated as autonomous agents. Persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection.

Beneficence: Human subjects should not be harmed. Research should maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms.

Justice: The benefits and risks of research must be distributed fairly.

Informed Consent: Subjects, to the degree that they are capable, must be given the opportunity to choose what they shall or shall not happen to them.

The consent process must include these elements:

1.Information 2. Comprehension, and 3. Voluntariness

The nature and scope of risks and benefits must be assessed in a systematic manner. There must be fair procedures and outcomes in the selection of research subjects. [4]

In The Final Call blog, we learn Dr. Mengele had many medical aiders and abettors. When their crimes became known to the world, American officials created a court in Nuremberg in 1946, where they put 23 of the Nazi doctors on trial.

But at their trial, the defendants did something that shocked the world and may have led to seven of them actually being acquitted. In their defense they introduced into evidence an article in the June 4, 1945, issue of Life magazine, which reported on a malaria experiment in America! It was performed on 432 male prisoners at Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois. Doctors there deliberately had prisoners bitten by malaria-infected mosquitoes and then treated them with high doses of a toxic serum to observe the side effects.

Ironically, had these defendants known of the Tuskegee syphilis experiment occurring in Alabama at the very same time, they would, in all likelihood, have made it known to the world in their own exposure that possibly could have ended that notorious American medical atrocity. But Tuskegee’s Black men and their families would suffer another 26 years before those U.S. government “doctors” were forced to shut the “study” down in 1972—and none of those criminal scientists ever went on trial. The fact is that American doctors were no better than Dr. Mengele and his cohorts, and in many cases, they proved far worse.

And the victims of these medical atrocities were Black people, Native Americans, Latinos, women, children, and poor Whites—all American citizens. The Nuremberg trials led to the establishment of a set of guiding principles for the medical world known as the Nuremberg Code. The code was specifically designed to outlaw the medical atrocities uncovered by the trials. Obviously, one would expect the medical profession to eagerly embrace and enthusiastically enforce the new standards.

But the American medical establishment responded to the Nuremberg Code in a peculiar way: they rejected it as “a good code for barbarians but an unnecessary code for ordinary physicians-scientists.” They claimed it represented unwarranted “legalistic” restraint on their medical research. And there is good reason for their astonishing rejection of such a humane code of conduct. A year before they publicly prosecuted the Germans, U.S. officials had set up a classified research facility a hundred and fifty miles from Nuremberg where they had secretly employed 58 German physicians in medical research.

Ultimately several of these war criminals were brought to America among 1,600 of their scientists in a clandestine U.S. program. By 1972—just 26 years after the Nuremberg Trials—the pharmaceutical industry in America was doing more than 90 percent of its experimental testing on prisoners. The benefits of having a controlled, mostly Black population were simply irresistible to America’s own medical profession. And while Germany’s doctors were being executed and imprisoned for their crimes, the American doctors reacted by actually refining, enhancing, and increasing the very same inhuman medical atrocities.

As one investigative journalist reported: “From the 40s through the early 70s, American doctors regularly injected and infected inmates with malaria, typhoid fever, herpes, cancer cells, tuberculosis, ringworm, hepatitis, syphilis and cholera in repeatedly failed attempts to cure such diseases. Doctors in prisons pulled out prisoners’ fingernails and inflicted flash burns to approximate the results of atomic bomb attacks and even conducted various mind-control experiments using isolation techniques and high doses of LSD, courtesy of the CIA.” The fact is the Tuskegee syphilis “experiment” was the tip of the iceberg for the wicked American scientists.

Their résumés of death and disease—before and after the Third Reich—would turn Dr. Mengele green with envy: The medical literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries contains more than 40 reports of experimental infections with gonorrhea, and one where it was applied to the eyes of sick children. In 1895, New York City pediatrician Henry Heiman infected with gonorrhea a 4-year-old boy, whom he called “an idiot with chronic epilepsy.” In 1950 American doctors working for the U.S. Navy sprayed large quantities of deadly bacteria over the city of San Francisco during a project called Operation Sea-Spray. Numerous citizens contracted pneumonia-like illnesses. In 1941 William C. Black inoculated a twelve-month-old baby with herpes who was “offered as a volunteer.”

He submitted his research to the Journal of Experimental Medicine. US Army doctors set up blowers atop the predominately Pruitt-Igoe housing development in north St. Louis, where they spewed hundreds of pounds of zinc cadmium sulfide into the air. Reports of high cancer rates and premature diseases and deaths followed. In 1945, a year before the Nuremberg trials, American doctors were conducting radiation experiments on unwitting patients. The first known victim was a Black man named Ebb Cade. He was admitted to a hospital after a car accident but instead of treating his broken bones, he was injected with plutonium—radioactive fuel for atomic bombs.

In the 1960s, Saul Krugman promised the parents of mentally retarded children that they would be admitted into the highly rated Willowbrook State School in Staten Island if they would consent to “vaccinations.” He fed live hepatitis virus (from others’ stool samples) to sixty healthy children. All the children fed hepatitis virus became ill, some severely. They were called “the most unethical medical experiments ever performed on children in the United States.” Doctors of the Sloan-Kettering Institute injected at least 396 inmates at Ohio State Prison with live human cancer cells. In 1962, doctors at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn injected live cancer cells into 22 elderly patients who were not informed what was happening to them.

When whistleblowers exposed the experiments, the doctors’ licenses were revoked for one year, yet one of them, Chester M. Southam, became president of the American Association for Cancer Research. Between 1951 and 1974, Albert Kligman, a professor of dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted experiments on inmates at Holmesburg Prison in Philadelphia for at least thirty-three major pharmaceutical, chemical, and cosmetic companies, including Merck, DuPont, Dow Chemical, and Johnson & Johnson.

From 1964 to 1968, the U.S. Army paid Kligman over $300,000 to perform experiments with mind-altering drugs on 320 inmates to determine the minimum effective dose of each drug needed to disable 50 percent of any given population. Kligman admitted, “It was years before the authorities knew that I was conducting various studies on prisoner volunteers …. No one asked me what I was doing. It was a wonderful time.” The celebrated developer of the polio vaccine (now known to have been contaminated with cancer), Jonas Salk, also conducted alarming human experiments.

Salk vaccinated 8,000 patients at two mental institutions in Michigan, and then infected them with wild influenza virus made from dried, infected mouse tissue. Salk later conducted another medical experiment on some of the 3,400 “mentally disabled” children at the Watson Home for Crippled Children and the Polk State School near Pittsburgh. In fact, these satanic American doctors and the public institutions and private corporations they represent, have raised the bar on Evil.

The trail of dead and diseased American bodies reaches far, far beyond Dr. Mengele, his cohorts and their chilling legacy.

This country’s transparently evil forced mandate plot to cull its population by 150 million and the world population by 2-3 billion people may get even worse. The U.S. government acknowledges that over 12,000 people have been killed in the United States alone, by this current world-wide experiment under the guise of an emergency and hundreds of thousands more have been injured. It’s time we start exercising our citizens rights and conduct citizens’ arrests of these psychopaths. [5]


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